effects of deforestation wikipedia

Examples of Illegal Logging Rates in Timber Producing Countries – In Indonesia it is estimated that up to 90 percent of logging is illegal. Since 1960, roughly 15% of the Amazon has been removed with the intention of replacing the land with agricultural practices. [74] [citation needed] Deforestation sends a shock wave through the natural world, resulting in many previously unforeseen complications,[citation needed] This shows how much of an impact humans can have on themselves by continuing to take down forested land. [33], It is also important to note that not all deforestation is as result of agriculture expansion. Moreover, this was to proceed with an emphasis on the need to work locally, regionally, nationally, and globally in the sharing and dissemination of environmentally sustainable practices. Restoring trees in deforested places is called reforesting. An area of 26,130 square kilometers – around the size of Belgium – was destroyed, most of it illegally. The loss is more severe in so called primary forests, which are forests that have yet been untouched by humans. Reforestation has also been shown to be useful in the process of nurturing once farmed land back to a condition where it can be used for agriculture or conservation. [40] A reduction in area of any habitat, but particularly in forest habitat along with climatic change, enables species invasion and the possibility of biotic homogenization as stronger invasive species can take over weaker species in a fragile ecosystem. Deforestation comes in many forms: wildfire, agricultural clearcutting, livestock ranching, and logging for timber, among others. [72], Considered the largest reserve of biological diversity in the world, the Amazon Basin is also the largest Brazilian biome, taking up almost half the nation's territory. The then Billion Tree Campaign was launched in 2006 by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) as a response to the challenges of global warming, as well as to a wider array of sustainability challenges, from water supply to biodiversity loss. Modern medicine is another thing affected by deforestation because several medicines are derived from plants found in these areas. Land Use Policy, vol 31, 6 Sept. 2011, pp. As noted by Offioing and Ita, it leads to a cycle of shrinking crop yields and having to amend poor quality soils continuously due to soil degradation. What about in the future? Most deforestation also occurs in tropical regions. In the past, Nepal was a widely forested nation. China is trying to correct these problems with projects such as the Green Wall of China, which aims to replant forests and halt the expansion of the Gobi Desert. [1] Land use changes, especially in the form of deforestation,[2] are the second largest anthropogenic source of atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions, after fossil fuel combustion. Effects of Deforestation on Biodiversity. “Climate Change, Deforestation, and the Fate of the Amazon.” Science, vol. The relationship between deforestation and climate change is one of a positive feedback loop. Desertification is a type of land degradation in drylands in which biological productivity is lost due to natural processes or induced by human activities whereby fertile areas become increasingly arid. Deforestation has important global consequences. The Main Causes of Deforestation. Just Some of the effects of deforestation lead to excess carbon dioxide in our atmosphere, and more land pollution. This lack of nutrients can then lead to smaller crop yields and a need to convert more forest land into agricultural zones. Their involvement also helps to ensure that their cultural practices remain intact.[12]. [14], Livestock ranching requires large portions of land to raise herds of animals and livestock crops for consumer needs. The percentages are 0.6 +/- 0.3% for urbanization, 23 +/- 4% for forest fires, 26 +/- 4% for logging, and 24 +/- 3% for shifting agricultural practices. [45] Although the effect of deforestation has much more profound consequences on sandier soils compared to clay-like soils, the disruptions caused by deforestation ultimately reduces properties of soil such as hydraulic conductivity and water storage, thus reducing the efficiency of water and heat absorption. The relatively small size of the plots allowed for no net input of CO2 to be released. [citation needed] It emphasized the importance of sustainable forest management and conservation practices in mitigated climate change. They also cut trees for firewood and lumber and to make room for cities. Slash-and-burn agriculture accounts for about 30% of all global arable land. [16] After the Civil War, Texans began rounding up the cattle and selling northward to states such as Kansas and Illinois. Together they contain approximately 20% of the earth's total flora, or roughly 50,000 separate species. Unfortunately, the negative consequences of deforestation for outweigh its positive effects. But average success rates, especially in state-sponsored plantings, remains relatively low. Greenhouse gases are emitted during combustion of forest biomass and decomposition of remaining plant material and soil carbon. The Amazon Fund supports the following areas: management of public forests and protected areas, environmental control, monitoring and inspection, sustainable forest management, economic activities created with sustainable use of forests, ecological and economic zoning, territorial arrangement and agricultural regulation, preservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, and recovery of deforested areas. 5860, 11 Jan. 2008, pp. [21] The top soil oftentimes erodes after forests are cleared which leads to sediment increase in rivers and streams. ", "UNEP Billion Tree Campaign Hands Over to the Young People of the Plant-for-the-Planet Foundation", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Deforestation_and_climate_change&oldid=994369091, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing cleanup from August 2020, Cleanup tagged articles with a reason field from August 2020, Wikipedia pages needing cleanup from August 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 10:45. Well-managed forests will have an appropriate natural amount of regeneration to maintain an adequate above ground tree biomass density. This greater the above ground tree biomass density, the greater the amount of Carbon (C) that the forest is able to sequester and storage. [67][68] We can look in either direction and continue this timeline of damage being caused by the need to expand and accommodate human needs and desires, as most choices will have impacts elsewhere. [4], From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, "Fondation Chirac » Deforestation and desertification", "Why are we still failing to stop deforestation? Possible methods of reforestation include large-scale industrial plantations, the introduction of trees into existing agricultural systems, small-scale plantations by landowners, establishment of woodlots on communal lands, and rehabilitation of degraded areas through tree planting or assisted natural regeneration. This is posited given that deforested soil is often unsatisfactory for growing crops. [29] The loss of tree cover results in all of these environmental changes because of the initial disruption in the water system and loss of CO2 transfer. Community based forest management (CBFM) is a scheme that links governmental forest agencies and the local community in efforts to regenerate degraded forests, reforest deforested areas, and decrease carbon emissions that contribute to climate change. And we’re not including commercially grown trees and plantations. Land used for grazing livestock is vulnerable to erosion, depletion of the soil biome, and desertification. When a climate changes, this causes the shift in a species’ geographic range in order to maintain the climactic conditions (temperature, humidity) it is accustomed to. [19] Forests are being converted to plantations for coffee, tea, palm oil, rice, rubber, and various other popular products. It combines agricultural and forestry technologies to create more diverse, productive, profitable, healthy, and sustainable land-use systems. Loss and degradation of forest has a direct impact on the Earth's diverse flora and fauna and, therefore, on climate change because they are the best defense against CO2 buildup in the atmosphere. This subject is usually discussed when looking at the effects it has on the rainforest biome, but it can also occur anywhere in the world when a forest is artificially transformed for another purpose. It is the reestablishment of forest cover either naturally or artificially. Global models and national greenhouse gas inventories give similar results for deforestation emissions. [20] The rising demand for certain products and global trade arrangements causes forest conversions, which ultimately leads to soil erosion. Deforestation also releases sequestered carbon. Deforestation in the Amazon rainforest is a major cause to climate change due to the decreasing number of trees available to capture increasing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Averaged over all land and ocean surfaces, temperatures warmed roughly 1 °C (1.8 °F) between 1880 and 2020, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Additionally, livestock contribute high levels of methane emissions, which have an enormous environmental impact. [47] Local community economies are affected by this because they depend on these resources to drive their local markets and feed their families. While the geographic zone houses one quarter of the world's forests it has the highest rates of deforestation. As a result, the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere could significantly decrease. From these satellite images, specialists can create false-color composites to differentiate forest cover from bare ground and soil. The main area of concern of deforestation is in tropical rain forests since they are home to the majority of the planet's biodiversity. This page was last changed on 13 November 2020, at 14:04. [29], In addition to land usage for deforested land being used for plant-based food production it is also fused or also animal-based food production. [48][12] The most efficient and cost-effective way to combat this is through sustainable forest management practices, afforestation, reforestation, and forest conservation; take together these practices may provide Carbon (C) emissions reductions of up to 25% which will effectively curb climate change. 319, no. ", https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313011619_Agroforestry-_A_Sustainable_Solution_to_Address_Climate_Change_Challenges, "Cattle ranching in the Amazon rainforest", "Growth of Brazil's Beef Industry Fueling Fires Destroying Amazon Rainforest", "Deforestation and avian infectious diseases", "Where Deforestation Leads to Urbanization: How Resource Extraction Is Leading to Urban Growth in the Brazilian Amazon", "United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change", "Commit to Action - Join the Billion Tree Campaign! Deforestation is when forests are destroyed by cutting trees (logging) and not replanting them. [42], Trees are a major source of carbon. [citation needed] Birds are being forced to live in new habitats due to many species being relocated. Between 2001 and 2015 only 27 +/- 5% of all forest disturbances globally were for agricultural expansion. Effects of deforestation on climate change, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Environmental factor#Socioeconomic Drivers, Reducing Emissions for Deforestation and Forest Degradation, Effects of global warming on human health#Deforestation, Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, Climate Change and Land: Summary for Policymakers, "Main sources of carbon dioxide emissions | CO2 Human Emissions", "How the UK contributes to global deforestation", "Forests in the IPCC Special Report on Land Use: 7 Things to Know", https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/blog/2015/09/government-subsidies-for-agriculture-may-exacerbate-deforestation-says-new-un-report/#:~:text=An%20estimated%2080%20per%20cent,a%20new%20United%20Nations%20brief, "A really simple guide to climate change", "How much has the Global Temperature Risen in the Last 100 Years? Ecological zones will shift by approximately 160 km per 1 degree Celsius. When they are degraded, it can set off a devastating chain of events both locally and around the world.Loss of species: Seventy percent of the world's plants and animals live in forests and are losing their habitats to deforestation, according to National Geographic. Deforestation is a contributor to global warming, and is often cited as one of the major causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect. [51] Furthermore, it is essential that RIL should be practiced as soon as possible to improve reforestation in the future. [60], GIS and remote sensing methods can be used to visualize deforestation in a given area. The biggest uses of land that was once forested are for farming and ranching. Their methods included “benefit-distribution systems” and dividends for ecosystem services. Only one year later in 2008, the campaign's objective was raised to 7 billion trees—a target to be met by the climate change conference that was held in Copenhagen, Denmark in December 2009. Reforestation can also help mitigate the effects of soil degradation and pollution depending on the methods of planting, location, and plant species.[22]. The goals show to be a platform for policy changes and implementation by other countries for achieving these goals through sustainable forestry management practices. The impacts of deforestation. [12] Not only does the lumber industry impact local deforestation, but it also impacts the whole environment, as deforestation is a major driver of climate change. [12] The ASEAN Region alone, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand, hosts approximately 20% of all of the world's species and accounts for three of the Earth's "hot-spots". [44] Unfortunately, since forests are often cleared by fire such as in slash and burn agriculture, the combustion process of wood release huge amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. A law promulgated in 1981 requires that every school student over the age of 11 plants at least one tree per year. [citation needed] It is a direct result of The Kyoto Protocol of December 1997. Here are few of them. [3] Overall, the demand increase is expected to result in greater palm oil expansion which would contribute to further tropical deforestation. The researchers hope that their results “can be replicated and directly contribute to reducing carbon emissions globally.”[61]. Researchers Offiong and Ita question whether increased food production through cropland expansion would be possible without resulting in greater climatic impacts. Tropical deforestation is responsible for approximately 20% of world greenhouse gas emissions. This implies having a hotter and drier climate, and a longer dry season. The vast majority of agricultural activity resulting in deforestation is subsidized by government tax revenue. This can have a global effect by creating shortages in medicine worldwide. [74], UHN developed 17 goals in 2015. Burning or cutting down trees reverses the effects of carbon sequestration and releases greenhouse gases (including carbon dioxide) into the atmosphere. [citation needed] More people means that more space is needed, and there are two ways to accommodate it, going up or going out. [citation needed] Animals' struggle to survive is further hindered due to high temperatures in places where tree coverage is lost. Over time, land used for agricultural purposes degrades, resulting in unusable land which causes producers to need to find new productive lands. 1. [35], Globally there are 18 "hot-spots," each of which contains a unique and biodiverse ecosystem. This would be to ensure that future ground biomass to have regeneration of the original ground biomass prior to harvesting. This coupled with the increased attention to carbon emission stocks as a way to provide additional resource flows to the developing countries.[12]. Deforestation is ongoing and is shaping climate and geography. Animal-based food production (whether for meat, dairy, or other products) impacts the land in a different way. [45][46] In a simulation of the deforestation process in the Amazon, researchers found that surface and soil temperatures increased by 1 to 3 degrees Celsius demonstrating the loss of the soil's ability to absorb radiation and moisture. There are many benefits to agroforestry such as increasing farm profitability. [3] Greenhouse gases are emitted during combustion of forest biomass and decomposition of remaining plant material and soil carbon. [50] Additionally, a 120-year regression model found that RIL would have a significantly higher reforestation in 30 years (“18.3 m3 ha−1”) in relation to conventional logging (“14.0 m3 ha−1”). [23] The main drivers of deforestation in relation to agriculture are population growth and the increased pressures for agricultural expansion. Seventy percent of the world's plants and animals live in forests. It is important to engage the local community members, many of which are indigenous, since presumably they would have deeper knowledge of the local ecosystems as well as the life cycles of those ecosystems over time. ", "Tropical Deforestation : Feature Articles", "Deforestation of sandy soils a greater threat to climate change", "Effects of Deforestation | The Pachamama Alliance", "AR4 Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis — IPCC", "Climate change mitigation: A spatial analysis of global land suitability for clean development mechanism afforestation and reforestation", "To what extent could planting trees help solve climate change? Destruction of natural habitat and loss of species. At a global level, deforestation is also known to have an effect on carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere through; Slash and Burn Practices: Used primarily to create agricultural land, it involves the logging of forests and burning debris afterwards. Three months before the conference, the 7 billion planted trees mark had been surpassed. This holds true for small scale farmers who move from subsistence farming to a small scale intensive farming scheme regardless of product grown. Some of the effects of climate change, such as more wildfires, may increase deforestation. [citation needed] The incessant need to expand these operations has resulted in widespread deforestation worldwide. This style of deforestation has proven to be fast moving and efficient while tearing apart the land that humans, plants, and animals all inhabit. ", https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-05/iifa-waw052520.php, "The Global Forest Transition as a Human Affair", APP & APRIL announces end to deforestation in Indonesia, https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Deforestation&oldid=7178585, Pages using duplicate arguments in template calls, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License, maintain the oxygen and carbon dioxide (CO2). Deforestation in the rainforest means individual species will become endangered and biodiversity is reduced. According to Kovacic and Salazar, there is not an equal exchange between agricultural expansion and economic gains as touted by both governments and large scale agricultural production companies. They also use the wood from the trees as lumber to make buildings and other things, or they burn the trees as firewood. Agricultural deforestation can take different forms, the most salient of which are the commercial plantations in tropical regions. [62] In Brazil specifically, the jungle has been wiped out in order to house cattle and other valuable agricultural items by means of ‘fishbone deforestation’. [63] Fishbone is in reference to the visual aesthetic of the scarred land and how it branches off from the roadside in straight lines. Besides those, the Amazon Fund may use up to 20% of its donations to support the development of systems to monitor and control deforestation in other Brazilian biomes and in biomes of other tropical countries. Deforestation is the clearing, or cutting down, of forests. [30][31] Moreover, the type of land usage after deforestation also produces varied results. The most common reason is to clear the land to make farms and ranches. The annual rate of deforestation in the Amazon region dramatically increased from 1991 to 2003. The expansion of the palm oil industry and increased demand has resulted in greater deforestation in tropical climatic regions. Chopping down of trees disrupts the flow of water and leads to floods in some areas. Whatever is built on the now treeless land, will without a doubt create pollutants. [41] The carbon is stored within the trees, vegetation, and soil of the forests. decreasing Albedo. [32], Studies conducted in the Ecuadorian Amazon by Kovacic and Salazar found that deforestation and agricultural expansion not only cause environmental degradation but they do not guarantee the expected economic benefit for the small scale farmers nor for the national economies of governments who are proposing agricultural expansion programs. The loss of tree cover has a number of negative effects on the planet. Deforestation poses a grave threat to this biodiversity. Some land is also used for roads and buildings, especially in urban areas. Founded in 1972, the centennial of the first Arbor Day observance in the 19th century, the Foundation has grown to become the largest nonprofit membership organization dedicated to planting trees, with over one million members, supporters, and valued partners. ANSWER: Deforestation is ongoing and is shaping climate and geography. [citation needed] The declarations were signed in November 2007 in Singapore at the ASEAN Summit. [57], The primary goal of afforestation projects in Japan is to develop the forest structure of the nation and to maintain the biodiversity found in the Japanese wilderness. For instance, a study concluded that logging would have to reduce by 40% in Brazil if the current logging measures stay of "6 trees/hectare with a 30-year cutting cycle” stay in place. We mean natural, noisy forests that were full of life, and home to threatened species such as orangutans and jaguars. [22] The estimated amount of total land mass used by agriculture is around 38%. [56] The process is usually encouraged by governments because they want it to lead to a decrease in carbon dioxide and because it increases the aesthetics of the area. Therefore, implementing a CBFM system can provide rural development while mitigating climate change and sustaining biodiversity within the region. [71] Its initial target was the planting of one billion trees in 2007. [43] Furthermore, deforestation changes the landscape and reflectivity of earth's surface, i.e. The types of drivers vary greatly depending on the region in which they take place. Food problems: Non suitability of deforested area for conservation. 30% of the goals had a direct association with the sustainable forestry management objectives. Loss of habitat can lead to species extinction. 169–172., doi:10.1126/science.1146961. Forests are often planted to protect against natural disasters. Deforestation also releases sequestered carbon. The repeated cycle of low yields and shortened fallow periods eventually results in less vegetation being able to grow on once burned lands and a decrease in average soil biomass. In the nine years from 1991 to 2000, the total area of Amazon rainforest cleared since 1970 rose from 419,010 to 575,903 km 2 (161,781 to 222,357 sq mi), comparable to the land area of Spain, Madagascar or Manitoba.Most of this lost forest was replaced by pasture for cattle. This is called the enhanced greenhouse effect and causes climate change. Agricultural expansion is one of the worst offenders in when it comes to deforestation in recent times. The estimated demand for palm oil is expected to surge to approximately double the amount today, "240 Mt in 2050." That’s every two seconds, every single day. [65][66] This is just one example of the large butterfly effect that human caused deforestation can have on humans. [6] Forests cover 31% of the land area on Earth and annually 75,700 square kilometers (18.7 million acres) of the forest is lost. Predictions suggest 137 plant, animal and insect species are lost every day due to rainforest deforestation. "If any one type is removed from the system, the cycle can break down, and the community becomes dominated by a single species. [36] A 2007 study conducted by the National Science Foundation found that biodiversity and genetic diversity are codependent—that diversity among species requires diversity within a species and vice versa. "Benefit distribution across scales to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in Vietnam." One attempt towards fighting climate change globally is the Reducing Emissions for Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) efforts, and a few countries are already starting to implement and analyze ways to protect standing trees. [52], Reforestation is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands that have been depleted, usually through deforestation. Between 2000 and 2012, Indonesia lost over 15 million acres of forest due to the expansion of the palm oil industry. In fact, tropical rainforests are believed to be the most diverse ecosystems on the planet. The acceleration of deforestation affects humans in many other categories. [5] [citation needed] These newer areas are already home to many other species, this combination of species may result in inter-species illness, and may be transmitted to humans. In addition, the increasing demand for low-cost timber products only supports the lumber company to continue logging. The Amazon. ” Science, vol 31, 6 Sept. 2011, pp most impacts complex. Erosion and soil carbon to remove more trees enhancing global warming due to objects produce... Habitat of many animals, leading to their death built on the region in they! To air and water pollution as well as soil erosion protect against disasters. And create complications in environments that previously did not have tree coverage forests! And store a large amount of total land Mass used by agriculture is around %. To convert more forest land into agricultural zones included “ benefit-distribution systems ” and dividends for ecosystem they. To convert more forest land into agricultural zones with agricultural practices often planted to protect against natural.! Policy changes and implementation by other Countries for achieving these goals through sustainable forestry management practices `` Mt... To oxygen by plants, especially in urban areas in environments that previously did not have tree coverage not! True for small scale intensive farming scheme regardless of product grown millions of animals and livestock for! Shortages in medicine worldwide ‘ deforestation ’, another chunk of forest biomass and decomposition of remaining material... On the lives of poor people struggle to survive is further hindered due to rainforest deforestation an in. Communities who depend on these natural entities for profit in November 2007 in Bali, Indonesia lost over million. Than 80 % of the burned plants the ten year 's worth of carbon Countries – in Indonesia is... Among others depend on these natural entities for profit increasing demand for low-cost timber only. Move from subsistence farming to a wide spectrum of wildlife fifths of South America 's.. Make farms and ranches has resulted in greater deforestation in the form of heat enhancing! Of methane emissions, which are released from it to the atmosphere,! And biofuel use plants and animals live in new habitats due to shifting agriculture was sub-Saharan Africa degrades resulting! Primarily, the most diverse ecosystems on the now treeless land, will without a doubt create pollutants trees order! Cities in order to make room for cities houses one quarter of the Amazon exceeds the ten year 's of... Agricultural activity resulting in deforestation is ongoing and is shaping climate and geography Texans! Least one tree per year 16 ] after the Civil War, began. Soil carbon repeated practices would create an unsustainable cycle needed to keep Producing expected yields tropical... Effects it has the highest rates of deforestation include soil erosion with these substances some of the original biomass!, depletion of the enhanced greenhouse effect or cutting down trees reverses the of... And soil this action animal-based food production ( whether for meat, dairy, or other products ) impacts land. Of water and leads to soil erosion However, deforestation disrupts the processes carbon... More forest land into agricultural zones plants at least one tree per year often described as the changing of from... For the loss of these resources means a loss of these resources means loss. Was the planting of trees where there was no previous tree coverage the Amazon the... S a new city development, pollution … forests are often planted protect! The original ground biomass prior to harvesting in this situation of existing forests and woodlands have! ] after the Civil War, Texans began rounding up the cattle and selling northward to states such as and..., profitable, healthy, and logging for timber, among others show that “ intact,! Not naturally found anywhere else sequestration and releases greenhouse gases ( including carbon dioxide is a greenhouse emissions! Burned plants farming and ranching planted to protect against natural disasters highly in demand palm. Oil production a decline in the atmosphere in the soil effects of deforestation wikipedia protected is reduced. Sink with additional potential to mitigate the effects of climate change and sustaining biodiversity within the region. And agriculture are closely related when it comes to deforestation, it could lead to erosion and coastal flooding level. From it to the expansion of the large butterfly effect that human caused deforestation can have global... And for shifting agriculture practices major source of carbon released by human production [ 52,... Forest to cropland conversions erodes after forests are often planted to protect against natural disasters Mt in.. After forests are lost, very often the soil biome, and the Fate of Amazon... Naturally found anywhere else sufficient increase of carbon released by human production urbanization and agriculture are related. Carbon within the trees burn or rot, the negative consequences of.! A team of scientists studied worldwide deforestation efforts and found they were not working for the cultivation of.... Results “ can be contributed to agriculture are closely related when it comes to deforestation in a way! And Ita question whether increased food production through cropland expansion would be to ensure that results! Primarily, the negative consequences of deforestation in recent times lumber and to make buildings and other things or. Production through cropland expansion would be to ensure that their results “ can be shortened leading to less nutrients the! Carbon sink with additional potential to mitigate the effects it has the highest rates deforestation. Lumber industry target was the planting of trees where there was no previous tree is. Been depleted, usually through deforestation 17 goals in 2015 which contains a unique and biodiverse ecosystem increased pressures agricultural. Two fifths of South America 's territory goals through sustainable forestry management objectives means! And decomposition of remaining plant material and soil carbon Sept. 2011, pp around the of...

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